In 1996, Dennis Smalley proposed his tripartite model - arguably the most comprehensive available for discussing sonic characteristics. The elaboration below lists numerous categories under the subheadings of interactive, reflexive and interactive relationships that may be easily converted to effective techniques for composers. Indicative techniques rely on referential associations - signs pointing to the subjective experiences of listeners, while interactive techniques rely on the reception and understanding of established musical codes. The final category, reflexive techniques embody emotional performance and reactions to sounds.